The list includes the European Space Agencya multi-national state organization, but does not include private consortiums. End of life[ edit ] When satellites reach the end of their mission this normally occurs within 3 or 4 years after launchsatellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit.
Land Stewardship Satellites can detect underground water and mineral sources; monitor the transfer of nutrients and contaminants from land into waterways; and measure land and water temperatures, the growth of algae in seas, and the erosion of topsoil from land. Also contributing to scientific research were the experiments conducted by the astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the space stations launched by the United States Skylab and the Soviet Union Salyut and Mir ; in these stations researchers worked for months at a time on scientific or technical projects.
Also known as an intermediate circular orbit. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity. An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees. Communication payload[ edit ] The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders.
Full Answer Satellites vary in size and complexity, and have different features making them suitable for various functions. This is an important tool, allowing big manufacturing companies and department stores to perform inventory management, provide instant credit card authorization and automated teller banking services to even small towns, pay-at-the-pump gas at freeway gas stations, and video conferencing for international corporations.
Research satellites measure fundamental properties of outer space, e. Earth observation satellites also allow developing countries to practice informed resource management and relief agencies to follow refugee population migrations.
An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle. All objects possess a gravitational field, but it is only in the case of particularly large objects i.
Satellites monitor ocean temperatures and prevailing currents; data acquired by satellite-borne radars were able to show sea levels have been rising by three mm a year over the last decade. Today, there are more than three dozen launch sites in use or under construction in more than a dozen countries.
Types of Satellites Satellites can be divided into five principal types: Costs are Prohibitive Satellites are expensive. Space telescopes rank among the largest and most innovative objects in space. Your generous support helps develop science-based solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future.
It provides greater accuracy in a shorter time; users can obtain information 24 hours a day; and users are always in view of at least five satellites, which yields highly accurate location information a direct readout of position accurate to within a few yards including altitude.
Syncom 3, launched inwas the first stationary earth satellite. Satellites will drift west.
Centric classifications[ edit ] Geocentric orbit: Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet specifically Russia and the United States. Russia and other nations have also launched such satellites; the French SPOT satellites provide higher-resolution photographs of the earth.
By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 1,  artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. However, the Transit system had an inherent limitation. They take photographs of various things on Earth and in space, in visible light or in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum, and send and receive a variety of signals for televisions, cell phones and GPS devices.
High Earth orbit HEO: Communications satellites provide a worldwide linkup of radio, telephone, and television.Satellites send television signals directly to homes, but they also are the backbone of cable and network TV. These satellites send signals from a central station that generates programming to smaller stations that send the signals locally via cables or the airwaves.
"At the scene" news broadcasts. satellite, artificial Artificial object placed in orbit around the Earth or other celestial body. Satellites can perform many tasks, including sending back data or pictures to the Earth.
Hundreds of satellites of various types orbit the Earth. They may study the atmosphere, or photograph the surface for scientific or military purposes. [/caption] An artificial satellite is a marvel of technology and engineering.
The only thing comparable to the feat in technological terms is the scientific know-how that goes into placing, and. Communication Satellites Introduction Communications Satellites have been around since A communications satellite is a spacecraft that orbits the Earth and relays messages, radio, telephone and television signals.
Stations on the ground, called earth stations, transmit signals to the satellite, which then relays the signal to other. ISRO launched Artificial Satellites towards Sun Planet.
Space scientists are succeeding to send artificial satellites towards Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Planets only, the exception of the sun.  History of artificial satellites Sputnik 1: The first artificial satelliteThe first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4,and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer.
This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States.Download